How Trump could influence the makeup of the Fed

(Reuters) – Donald Trump’s allies are reported to be drafting proposals to erode the Federal Reserve’s independence if the presumptive Republican presidential nominee regains the White House, with installing loyalists at the central bank as a key element.

The Fed both manages monetary policy – most notably through setting benchmark interest rates that influence the direction of the overall economy – and is a top U.S. bank regulator. The Trump allies drafting the plan aim to hobble its relatively free rein on both fronts, according to the Wall Street Journal report.

Installing policymakers who favor loyalty to Trump as president over the institution’s prized independence would be central to that effort, according to the report. Here’s a look at the Fed system’s structure and how the selection of policymakers works.


The Federal Reserve System, created by Congress in 1913, comprises the Washington-based Federal Reserve Board; 12 regional Federal Reserve banks dotted across the country; and the Federal Open Market Committee, including both Fed board members and regional bank heads.

The Fed board has seven members, including an overall chair, two vice chairs – one for monetary policy and one for bank oversight – and four other governors. All are appointed by the president subject to confirmation by the Senate.

Trump succeeded in appointing four board members during his presidency and elevated Jerome Powell, who was already a governor through an appointment by Trump’s predecessor, Democrat Barack Obama, to be the Fed chair.

All of his successful appointees – including Powell and current governors Michelle Bowman and Christopher Waller – have hewn to the tradition of Fed independence. Three others who were seen by many as pushing that envelope – Stephen Moore, Judith Shelton and Herman Cain – withdrew or failed to win full Senate confirmation.

Each regional Fed bank is run by a president appointed by a subcommittee of each bank’s board of directors.

The FOMC, which has the all-important role of setting interest rate policy, comprises all seven board governors, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and four other regional bank presidents on a rotating basis.


Fed governors are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate for 14-year terms, or for the unexpired remainder of a 14-year term for a previous incumbent. Term expirations are staggered at two-year intervals, with the next one due in 2026.

Fed chairs and vice chairs are appointed for four-year terms that run concurrently with their governorships, and typically do not stay on as governor if not re-appointed to their leadership role. Powell’s position as chair expires in May 2026, and both vice chairs’ positions expire during the term of the next U.S. president.

The following is a list of current governors, in order of their term expirations with the nearest listed first.

Board Member Joined board, Board term Became chair /vice Chair/ vice

term extended ends chair, reappointed chair term


Adriana Kugler 9/13/2023 Jan 2026

Jerome Powell, 5/12/2012, Jan 2028 2/5/2018, May 2026

chair 6/14/2014 5/23/2022

Christopher Waller 12/18/2020 Jan 2030

Michael Barr, vice 7/19/2022 Jan 2032 7/19/2022 July 2026

chair for


Michelle Bowman 11/26/2018, Jan 2034


Philip Jefferson, 5/23/2022 Jan 2036 9/13/2023 Sept 2027

vice chair

Lisa Cook 5/23/2022, Jan 2038



Fed bank presidents are picked by the six non-banker members of their boards of directors, and must be approved by the Fed Board. They can serve until the mandatory retirement age of 65 or, if appointed after the age of 55, for 10 years or until they reach age 75.

The terms of all current bank presidents end in February 2026, when they will be considered for a fresh five-year appointment by the Board of Governors. This reupping process historically has not resulted in any change in leadership, but this is custom not law.

The following is a list of the Fed regional bank presidents with the term limit dates listed for the five whose terms will expire over the course of the term of the next U.S. president.

Bank President Expected end of term

CLEVELAND Loretta Mester June 2024

PHILADELPHIA Patrick Harker June 2025

RICHMOND Thomas Barkin Jan 2028

NEW YORK John Williams June 2028

SAN FRANCISCO Mary Daly Oct 2028

ATLANTA Raphael Bostic After 2028

BOSTON Susan Collins After 2028

KANSAS CITY Jeffrey Schmid After 2028

ST LOUIS Alberto Musalem After 2028

CHICAGO Austan Goolsbee After 2028

MINNEAPOLIS Neel Kashkari After 2028

DALLAS Lorie Logan After 2028

(This story has been corrected to fix Stephen Moore’s name in paragraph 7)

(Reporting by Dan Burns and Ann Saphir; Editing by Andrea Ricci)